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Alzheimer's Disease Causes & Care

Source: National Institute on Aging
U.S. Dept. of Health & Human Services


Basics of Alzheimer’s Disease

Alzheimer’s disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills and, eventually, the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. It is the most common cause of dementia in older adults. While dementia is more common as people grow older, it is not a normal part of aging.

In most people with the disease—those with the late-onset type—symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Early-onset Alzheimer’soccurs between a person’s 30s and mid-60s and is very rare. Alzheimer’s disease is the most common cause of dementia among older adults.

The disease is named after Dr. Alois Alzheimer. In 1906, Dr. Alzheimer noticed changes in the brain tissue of a woman who had died of an unusual mental illness. Her symptomsincluded memory loss, language problems, and unpredictable behavior. After she died, he examined her brain and found many abnormal clumps (now called amyloid plaques) and tangled bundles of fibers (now called neurofibrillary, or tau, tangles).

These plaques and tangles in the brain are still considered some of the main features of Alzheimer’s disease. Another feature is the loss of connections between nerve cells (neurons) in the brain. Neurons transmit messages between different parts of the brain, and from the brain to muscles and organs in the body. Many other complex brain changes are thought to play a role in Alzheimer’s, too.

This damage initially appears to take place in the hippocampus, the part of the brain essential in forming memories. As neurons die, additional parts of the brain are affected. By the final stage of Alzheimer’s, damage is widespread, and brain tissue has shrunk significantly.

How Many Americans Have Alzheimer’s Disease?

Estimates vary, but experts suggest that as many as 5.5 million Americans age 65 and older may have Alzheimer’s. Many more under age 65 also have the disease. Unless Alzheimer's can be effectively treated or prevented, the number of people with it will increase significantly if current population trends continue. This is because increasing age is the most important known risk factor for Alzheimer’s disease.

What Does Alzheimer’s Disease Look Like?

Memory problems are typically one of the first signs of Alzheimer’s, though initial symptoms may vary from person to person. A decline in other aspects of thinking, such as finding the right words, vision/spatial issues, and impaired reasoning or judgment, may also signal the very early stages of Alzheimer’s disease. Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a condition that can be an early sign of Alzheimer’s, but not everyone with MCI will develop the disease.

People with Alzheimer’s have trouble doing everyday things like driving a car, cooking a meal, or paying bills. They may ask the same questions over and over, get lost easily, lose things or put them in odd places, and find even simple things confusing. As the disease progresses, some people become worried, angry, or violent.

How Long Can a Person Live with Alzheimer’s Disease?

The time from diagnosis to death varies—as little as 3 or 4 years if the person is older than 80 when diagnosed, to as long as 10 or more years if the person is younger.

Alzheimer’s disease is currently ranked as the sixth leading cause of death in the United States, but recent estimates indicate that the disorder may rank third, just behind heart disease and cancer, as a cause of death for older people.

Although treatment can help manage symptoms in some people, currently there is no cure for this devastating disease.

Quick Facts About Alzheimer's Disease

  • It’s the only cause of death in the top 10 in America that cannot be prevented, cured or slowed
  • Almost two-thirds of Americans with Alzheimer’s disease are women.
  • One in three seniors dies with Alzheimer’s or another dementia.
  • Alzheimer’s disease is the sixth-leading cause of death in the United States.
  • More than 5 million Americans are living with the disease.
  • There are an estimated 16 million caregivers of people living with Alzheimer's and other dementias in the United States.
  • In 2017, 16 million caregivers of people living with Alzheimer's disease or other dementias provided an estimated 18.4 billion hours of unpaid care, a contribution to the nation valued at more than $232 billion.
  • In 2018, Alzheimer's disease will cost the United States $277 billion. This number is projected to rise to more than $1.1 trillion in 2050.

 

Heritage Senior Care has many years of experience caring for loved ones with dimentia and Alzheimer's Disease.
Call us at (800) 562-2734 to discuss how we can help. Customized to your needs.



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